Падение тоталитарного режима и развенчание коммунистической идеологии, окончание "холодной войны" и переход к принципиально новым отношениям с западным миром, распад СССР и потеря Россией роли метрополии среди окружающих ее народов, что зачастую сопровождалось конфликтами, в том числе кровавыми военными столкновениями, завоевание гражданских свобод, в первую очередь свободы совести, слова и убеждений, активизация различных религиозных и общественных организаций, — все это вызывает как в самой России, так и за ее пределами стремление пересмотреть и заново осознать смысл и значение, особенности и роль того, что представляет собой лицо России, ее традиционные ценности и идеалы, характерные черты ее духа, — т. е. менталитета и социальной психологии ее многонационального народа, а также места его в общемировом развитии.
Последние достижения и искания как в области исторической науки, так и в области современной политологии показывают, сколь необходимо основательное изучение духовных основ исторического развития того или иного народа, выражающихся в социальной психологии, все богатство которой в свою очередь отражается в верованиях и чаяниях, в способах богослужения и в житийной литературе, в фольклоре, в летописях, в публицистике, нравственном богословии, художественной литературе и политических выступлениях.
Одной из существенных особенностей российской религиозно-философской и общественно-политической мысли на всем протяжении российской истории является существование мирной доктрины, до недавних пор не привлекавшей внимания исследователей. Эта мирная доктрина представляла собой по существу ненасильственную социально-этическую или международно-правовую форму отпора насилию. В этом смысле история русской мирной доктрины гораздо шире истории пацифизма, ибо доктрина эта включает в себя стремление к сдвигам в общественном сознании, попытку создать идеал отношений между людьми, проникнутый милосердием, терпимостью, социальной справедливостью, защитой униженных и оскорбленных.
Исследования интернационального коллектива авторов, посвященные истории российской мирной идеи в ее международном и внутреннем аспектах и охватывающие практически все этапы развития отечественной истории от древнейшего периода до наших дней, позволяют выявить некоторые закономерности и тенденции, которые несомненно влияют не только на то, что происходит в жизни России сегодня, но и на процессы развития международных отношений. Вот некоторые из них.
Идеал мира как отсутствие войн и вооруженных конфликтов существовал в народном сознании еще с домонгольского периода. Он просматривается на материале фольклора и летописей и свидетельствует о стремлении народа жить в мире с соседями, с другими племенами и государствами. Мир в этих памятниках народной мысли выступает как идеал бытия, как нечто весьма желаемое, но трудно достижимое.
Однако этим не исчерпывается его содержание. Общехристианская традиция, освященная заповедями "не убий" и "возлюби ближнего как самого себя" получает мощное развитие в православном идеале святости, в духовном строе и практике жизни русского монашества. Воспитанная церковной литургической школой, которая постоянно проповедовала мир внутренний, духовный, осознанный как высший идеал бытия, православная мирная доктрина включала в себя отказ от эгоистических устремлений, утверждение себя в любви к Богу и к ближнему, прощение и самопожертвование.
Вместе с тем идеал мира, проповедовавшийся православным богослужением и житийной литературой, не означал, что пацифизм стал неотъемлемым учением Русской Православной церкви. Причин тому немало. Специфическое развитие российской истории приводило к постоянным войнам — либо оборонительным, направленным против нашествий иноплеменников с Востока и Запада, либо наступательным, расширяющим ее территорию. Полная войн история выдвигала в общественном сознании на первое место идеи защиты отечества от насилия извне. Немалую роль сыграли также традиции авторитаризма самодержавия, существовавшего в условиях полного отсутствия парламентаризма, и веками длившегося крепостничества, приводившего к массовому и каждодневному нарушению прав человека. Характерным для духовной жизни народа явилось также и то, что при сильном влиянии Православной церкви, подчиненной самодержавному государству, в России не сложились сколько-нибудь значительные национальные еретические и протестантские течения, многие из которых на Западе были носителями пацифистских идей.
Поэтому пацифизм в России, как, впрочем, и в других странах, не стал сколько-нибудь влиятельным идейным течением. Война и государственное насилие издревле считались естественными элементами политики. Российская же история традиционно относилась к самым жестоким и кровавым. Мирным тенденциям народного сознания противостояли имперский характер государства и тоталитарные устремления центральной власти. Со своей стороны народ, воспитанный церковью действительно в смирении и долготерпении и действительно проявлявший эти качества1, временами отвечал на нестерпимый гнет самодержавия и местных самодуров жестоким и беспощадным бунтом, что в свою очередь вызывало ответные жестокости властей. Может быть, именно поэтому в XIX в. в общественной мысли определилась победа идеи революционаризма (насильственной ломки сложившегося веками общественного и политического строя) над идеями мира, христианского долготерпения и всепрощения.
Однако именно в XIX в. в России выступает "апостол ненасилия" Лев Толстой и начинают действовать миротворческие секты — как иностранного происхождения (баптисты, меннониты, адвентисты Седьмого дня), так и русские (духоборы). Тогда же появляются и первые пацифистские общества, которые разворачивают свою деятельность в начале XX века.
Первая мировая война с ее чудовищными жертвами, последовавшие за ней революция и гражданская война в России вызывают к жизни активизацию миролюбивых сил — толстовцев, пацифистских сект и таких одиноких гигантов миротворчества в мысли, слове и действии, как Максимилиан Волошин. К тридцатым годам, однако, с установлением и упрочением сталинского тоталитаризма, эти движения подавляются, запрещаются, сходят на нет или подвергаются репрессиям. Формирование и утверждение тоталитаризма как государственной системы в Советской России сопровождалось ярко выраженной милитаризацией всех областей общественной жизни и созданием могущественной репрессивной машины.
1 Н. Я. Данилевский определял русский характер как "чуждый насильственности, исполненный мягкости, покорности, почтительности", имеющий "наибольшую соответственность христианским идеалам" (Данилевский Н. Я. Россия и Европа: взгляд на культурные и политические отношения славянского мира к германо-романскому. Спб.,1889. С. 526). Подобные же характеристики можно встретить в произведениях Ф. Достоевского, Л. Толстого и других русских писателей.
Особенностью миротворческих идей и движений в России в период тоталитаризма становится их тесная сращенность с борьбой против всемогущества государства и коммунистической идеологии, за политические свободы, в том числе за открытость общества по отношению к Западному миру. Протест против насилия, таким образом, был обращен прежде всего против внутреннего, государственного насилия. Антимилитаристские движения снизу были направлены в основном против государственного тоталитаризма, милитаризма и военно-промышленного комплекса, против агрессивной официальной идеологии. Другой особенностью было существование в советской России двух отдельных одно от другого миротворческих движений — с одной стороны, официального, служившего прикрытием тоталитарному государству с его милитаризмом и претензиями на "мировую революцию", и другого, отнюдь не массового, но смелого и сознательного независимого движения мира, объединявшего единицы и горстки людей, которые отважно рисковали своей жизнью и свободой. Это второе движение, несмотря на свою малочисленность и постоянные репрессии со стороны государственного аппарата, сыграло свою роль в окончании "холодной войны" и в крахе пропитанной духом насилия коммунистической идеологии.
Это не значит, что идеям мира и ненасилия удалось победить в современной России. Ее сегодняшний день по-прежнему отмечен вооруженными межнациональными конфликтами, преступностью, принимающей все более жестокие формы, терроризмом, бытовым ожесточением. Однако в общественном сознании все более просматривается осознанное стремление к мирной, ненасильственной альтернативе. В связи с этим особенно важным аспектом восстановления гуманистического облика российской цивилизации и включения ее в европейскую и мировую семью народов представляется возрождение мирной и ненасильственной альтернативы, всегда присутствовавшей в сознании народа и лучших его представителей. Духовный потенциал России, возрождающийся ныне мало помалу, вековые традиции, столь определенно зовущие к победе идеалов истины и добра, живые примеры людей прошлых и нынешних поколений, воплотивших в своей жизни идеи примирения с Богом, миром и ближними, — все это позволяет надеяться на то, что Россия скажет еще свое слово мира — миру и самой себе.
Y. N. Shchapov, Russia. Peace Ideas in Russian Chronicles of XI-XIII Centuries
The chapter deals with the ways of political conflict resolution in XI-XIII Centuries Russia and with the ideas of peace in political thinking of that period.
In the first part the author gives analysis of the word "peace" ("мир") and its understanding in Russian Chronicles. "Мир" meant peace after wars with other countries; it was often confirmed by peace treaties. "Мир" meant also "quiet times" and "silence" within Russia, i. e. peace between princes; and also "love" — Christian peace among people.
The second part speaks about meditations on peace in the middle XII century, the time of bitter hostility and wars between princes of different partstof Russia — wars for lands and power. At this time military glory was seen as a virtue of a prince, and attempt to achieve peace treaty as a manifestation of weekness. But there existed also another idea: both alternative ways of conflict resolution were seen as equal. As an example we can see a conflict between prince Izyaslav of Kiev and prince Yury Dolgorukiy and also conflicts with polovtsy. Constant menace of invasion from the Southern tribes of nomads made Russian princes to seek for peace among themthelves. For this purpose they had a special Congress of Princes in Loubech in 1097. However the Congress didn't give any positive results.
The author notes at the end, that inspite of being a Christian country there were almost no mentioning of Christian values in Russian Chronicles. Probably problems of war and peace were seen as pure political and because of that as secular ones. However when authors of Chronicles tried to explain the essence of the word "peace" and reasons of wars they used Christian system of values and Christian morality. Wars were described as signs of God's wrath for people's sins. Images and verses from Psalms, Epistles and other Biblical texts speaking on problems of war and peace were widely used in Russian literature of that period.
N. P. Malakhova, Russia. Peace Ideas in Russian Hagiography
As sources of this chapter N.P.Malakhova chose hagiographic literature — life stories of Russian Saints from XI till XIX centuries. These sources, as famous Russian relligious philosopher G.Fedotov says, are closely connected with religious experience and the very theme of "holy Russia's" history. Official historiography always neglected these sources as "not serious enough". Meanwhile "Saint's stories" were mostly popular as home reading on all levels of Russian society for centuries and made significant influence on people's mentality.
One of the mostly noticeable features of Russian saints was "peaceful mind", closely connected with the spirit of Christian doctrine (see Mt. 5:9, In. 14:27,17:33). For them the first step to peace within
was rejection of wealth and glory of this world. The best example are two brothers-princes Boris and Gleb, who were killed by Sviatopolk in 1015 in intestine war. They voluntarily refused the strife with Sviatopolk and preferred to be killed not to oppose evil by force according to Gospel. After being killed the brothers won victory over death and became to be mostly popular Russian Saints. Other Saints were going the same path, among them prince Mstislav, prince Roman Smolensky, who refused to resist evil and to take vengeance on his enemy.
Other examples of peaceful mind — life stories of Russian monks, hermits and ascetics who helped people of all social groups to keep in mind the ideal of peace, forgiveness and love. Such were Anthony and Pheodosy Pechersky. At the end of XIV century another famous Russian Saint Sergius Radonezhsky starts his feat (подвиг); until now he is seen at as a model of peace, humility and love both to people, animals and the whole creation. Sergius was very active also in the political life of Russia — he tried constantly to make peace between quarreling princes. He travelled a lot from one land to another one persuading princes to live in peace and love with each other. His contemporary Cyril Beelozersky went the same way.
The mostly recent example of peaceful mind was extremely popular Saint of XVIII-XIX centuries Seraphim Sarovsky. His teaching was expressed in a few very significant words. "My darling", he used to say, "court peaceful mind, and thousands will be saved around you".
N. P. Malakhova gives many other examples which show that ideal of peace — both within heart and in political life existed in Russian culture and in Russian history from pre-mongol times until now; it goes from the Christian tradition of Russian Orthodox church.
A. P. Yagodovsky, Russia. Ideal of Peace in Russian Orthodox Liturgical Practice
There is a certain stereotype in world view on Russian history. According to this stereotype Russian history is overwhelmed by wars, riots and various kinds of violence. But there always existed other traditions and ideals in the depth of people's mind, tradition, which made many writers, thinkers and philosophers to speak about peculiar patience, humility, peacefulness of Russian mind. Those ideals were developed particularly by liturgical practice of Russian Orthodox Church from the very beginning of its coming into being in XI Century.
The chapter by A. Yagodovsky considers Orthodox Church service from the point of view of peace ideal it contained. Such approach has special interest for historians of mentality because the Church service remained immutable for centuries; it was the main source of moral and spiritual knowledge and inspiration for millions of people and also the main source of education. We see from the chapter that peace ideal is literally running through the whole Russian Orthodox service. It starts with words "Let us pray God in peace" and finishes by "Let us go out in peace". A very important element of this service is the necessity of reconsiliation of all the people present and first of all of the priest himself with each other, with God, with everybody, because otherwise the prayer will not be efficient (see Mt. 5:23-24).
The main form of prayer (in greek called ektenia) which is repeated variably many times during the Liturgy, The Evening service and on other occasions, contains as a first request payer about peace in Heavens and peace on the Earth. The necessary element of ektenia is a prayer on reconsiliation and well-being of all the Christian Churches. And last — but not least — the prayer on peace within: "deliver us from all the wrath..."
Thus during the service, A.Yagodovsky writes, a person in the Church "becomes utterly absorbed in atmosphere of complete peace, love, mutual understanding and wholeness with God and with each other". An important element of the prayer is a request about peaceful life and peaceful death, without hostility and anger. And beyond that there is constant idea of eternal peace and future life in God.
The other key word of Russian Orthodox service — "love". It is repeated many times in very sacred moments of transubstantiation of bread and wine in body and blood of Christ. The very idea of eukharist sacrifice, as Comments to Liturgy say, is "a fruit of reconsiliation between people and God through Christ the Saviour".
This ideal of peace was not limited only by "church feelings". The author shows how it was put into practice by many Russian monks, priests, saints and ordinary people.
L. N. Pushkaryov, Russia. Meditations on Peace in Russian Folklore and in Social Thought of XVII-XVIII Centuries.
The ideal of peace as a way to happyness and well-being was always present in Russian proverbs, folk songs, tales and ballads. This theme however never attracted historians. They studied attitude of Russian people to war and military heroism, but neglected the ideas of peacemaking, friendliness, forgiveness.
L. N. Pushkaryov gives many examples of longing for peace which was mirrored in Russian folklore. War was judged in people's mind as-calamity and disaster. "Started the war — finish it", the folk wisdom says.
The ideas of peace-making were specifically developed in Russian publicisstics of XVII Century. Simeon Polotsky, a Church preacher and a teacher of Tsar's children wrote a few tracts, sermons and poems discussing problems of war and peace. He tried to explain the reasons of wars and was seeking them in the field of morality. Greed and lust, he wrote, were the main reasons of wars. He didn't think however that God forbids all kinds of wars and developed idea of "righteous", defensive war. Such war may be a good way to lasting peace.
L. N. Pushkaryov discerns ideas of peace as the supreme good, developed by great Russian scholar M. Lomonosov, and also by main activists of Russian Enlightenment — professor of law S. Desnitsky, philosopher Y. P. Kozelsky, writer A. N. Radishchev, professor V. F. Malinovsky, who also developed a project of "everlasting peace" between states. All those authors condemned war and praised' international peace; but they were not pacifists in the strict sence of the word. They agreed, that there could be a "righteous", defensive war. These ideas reflected deep expectations and hopes of masses of Russian people.
E. Rudnitskaya, Russia. Peace Ideas in Russian social thought of XIX Century
The essay deals with the major tendencies of peace ideas in Russian social thought of the 19th Century. The characteristic feature of peace idea in Russia was its close dependence on ideology of its authors. It appeared first in the mainstream of the Enlightenment which started its establishment in Russia at the second half of 18th Century and was extremely receptive to its socio-political interpretation; the main role in this aspect played the concept of peace created by J.-J. Rousseau. Dividing from this concept two trends develop: one tends to enlightenment and reforms (Kozel'sky, Desnitsky, Malinovsky, Pushkin), the other one connects the problem of peace-making with revolutionary re-building of the whole society — such was an approach to the problem of peace among the Decembrists.
After the events of 25th of December 1825 we can see a very clear idea of harmony between the Government and the society on the base of uniting people productive activity and enlightenment. The problem of peace was worked out within the istoriosophical doctrine of Slavophils and expressed by A. S. Khomyakov. He included it in the context of main ideas which for him were: religion, Christianity and spiritual mission of Russia in relation to other European nations.
The Crimean war and entrance of radicalism at the Scene of sociopolitical life marked a watershed in the development of the idea of war and peace: it starts to be subordinated to the interests of revolution. The problem of war is discussed in Hertzen's works, it receives the monosemantic evaluation in Bakunin's tracts and step by step starts to be treated as an important element, which helps to the revolution and because of that is desirable and fruitful. These ideas became to be propagated in 1870s by the newspapers of Russian blanquists "Nabat" (which means alarm bell); its editor was P'otr Tkachev.
Peace doctrine in Russia, which was at the beginning an expression of humanistic striving then came in the radical ideology to its own self-denial: the destroying force of war became to be a mean of terroristic way to solve the problem of organization of human society.
Pier Cesare Bori, Italy. Development of the Idea of Non-violence: "Non-resistance" of Leo Tolstoy
In this research Professor Bori showes how Christian belief came to Leo Tolstoy's mind and changed his views. It happened whenTolstoy was in his early fifties, and all what as he previously thought was good became to be evil and vise versa because as he wrote he accepted and realized Christ's teaching differently than he did it previously.
This discovery of Christian doctrine lead Tolstoy to the idea of non-resistance to evil by evil (see Mt. 5:39). For Tolstoy this idea was a central point of the Sermon on the Mount which was, as he thought, the main doctrine of the Gospels. Tolstoy didn't want academic explanation of scholarly divinity any more: he came to a childish belief which became to be a core of his own teaching. In his works "Confession" (1879), "What I believe in" (1884), "A brief version of Gospels", "God's Kingdom is within you" (1890-1893) he expounded the theme of non-resistance to evil by violence. Since the last tract the
question of peace became to be central in his teaching as well as the question of non-understanding and distortion of the essence of Christianity by historical churches and the contemporary world. Tolstoy gave a historical survey of the idea of peace — he mentions "Fathers of the Church" Origen, Tertullian and others, the activists of Reformation, especially one of Bohemian Brethren Piotr Khelchitsky, Mennonites, Quakers and radical North-American Christians (A. Ballow, L. Harrison).
At the end of this chapter Professor Bori makes a few observations about Tolstoy's perusal of the Sermon on the Mount. First, Tolstoy agreed that there was connection between it and some texts of the Old Testament like Isaiah 42.1-4. Secondly, Jesus demanded "more complete righteousness" than righteousness of Scribes and Pharisees. Besides that Tolstoy's concept is a rationalistic one, that's why it became to be a foundation for contemporary non-religious theories of non-violence.
K. N. Lomunov, Russia. Apostle of non-violence
This chapter continues the theme of non-violence in Leo Tolstoy's writings. The author mentions that Tolstoy hated violence for all his life, from his childhood. In 1857 he witnessed an execution of a man in Paris and this murder made deep impression on him. At the beginning of 60s he started to write a philosophical article on violence where he argued that violence is opposite to ideas of common justice, freedom and equality. The eternal purpose of humankind, he wrote, is movement to higher justice and like-mindedness which excludes violence.
Professor K.N.Lomunov gives alalysis of a few later tracts by Tolstoy — mostly "God's Kingdom is within you" (1890-1883) and "Law of Violence and Law of Love" (1908). Tolstoy was writing the first tract during the famine in Russia. Simultaneously he was writing social tracts "On Famine", "Terrible Question" and others. One idea united all these writings, philosophical as well as social, the idea that this world is founded not on law, but on violence. This idea was expressed by Tolstoy almost ten years earlier in the tract "What I believe in". He stated that the main mistake of historical Churches was that they didn't recognize the commandment of non-resistance to evil by violence. Only Mennonites, Quakers and some individuals like Piotr Khelchitsky, W. L. Harrison and A. Ballow propagated and practiced non-violence.
Tolstoy answered his numerous critics, both in Russia and abroad, who believed that Christ's teaching on non-violence became to be obsolete and naive in "our industrial age". He wrote of historical necessity and inevitability of not only theoretical study but practical embodyment of the law of non-violence in social life. In the last chapters of "God's Kingdom is within you" Tolstoy wrote about future military and revolutionary conflicts, which were logical results of ideology of violence. He believed however that time would come when humankind reject violence and come to new forms of life.
Peter Brock, Canada. Some Russian pacifist sectarians and military service, 1874-1914
The two major pacifist sects in Imperial Russia were the German-speaking Mennonites and the Doukhobors. This essay deals briefly with some of the other sects whose members refused to bear arms after the introduction of universal military service in 1874. Lev Tolstoy warmly supported conscientious objection which, from the 1880s onwards, he considered to be the right stand for a Christian to take when faced with conscription into the army. Though most Tolstoyans in this period, for various reasons, were exempt from military service, several young Tolstoyans served prison sentences as conscientious objectors. Although by this date few Molokans rejected war unconditionally, some still did, especially among the group known as Skakunv. Smaller sects like the Malevantsy bore a more consistent witness against war. On the other hand, the Baptists and the closely related Evangelical Christians produced few conscientious objectors before 1914, even though after the Revolution these two denominations declared their adherence to absolute pacifism until forced by the Communist regime to abandon this position. Little information is available about Seventh-day Adventists; they usually sought service in the army medical corps when conscripted. In fact, apart from Mennonites and Doukhobors, we do not at present have a clear picture of sectarian war resistance between 1874 and 1914.
S. Inikova. History of pacifist movement in Doukhobor sect, XVIII-XX Centuries.
Doukhobor sect appeared in Russia in XVIII Century. The central point of their teaching was religious doctrine on a man as a temple of God, of Saint Trinity. This point lead them necessarily to pacifism; they beleived that to kill a man means to encroach upon God Himself. They rejected Russian Orthodox Church and even didn't accept that they were Russians. They agreed to pay taxes to Tsar's government but didn't accept that they must defend the state from so called enemies. They often refused to go to the military service and agreed only to defend themselves but not to attack.
At the beginning of XIX Century Tsar Alexander I released Doukhobors from prisons and exile and allowed them to live together in Tauria and to have religious freedom. In 1841-45 they were moved to remote parts of Trans-Caucasian provinces. Local tribes of tartars and turks attacked their villages constantly, aand Doukhobors had to defend themthelves by weapon. During Russian-Turkish war of 1877-78 they helped Russian Army by peaceful means: gave horses and conveyances, arrainged hospitals in their villages.
In 1895 most radical part of Doukhobors — so called "postniki" ("fasters") with Piotr Verigin as their leader burned all their weapon and refused flatly to go to military service. As a result they were persecuted by the government and had to emigrate to Canada. Leo Tolstoy whose ideas were very close to Doukhobors' helped them financially and morally. From this time Doukhobors-"postniki" started to be complete pacifists: they declared principle of non-violence, refusing even to defend themselves, and rejected to support any kind
of state violence. The other part of Doukhobor movement which stayed in Russia was less consistent in their views; they took part in war with Japan in 1905-07 and in the World War I. During the first years of Soviet regime they were exempted from military service accordding to the Decree of 1919, but later were persecuted and made to do militay service. In the totalitarian state founded on violence the open and consistent pacifism was impossible.
K. Tarasoff, Canada. Canadian Doukhobors as peacemakers
This chapter represents a survey of Canadian Doukhobor history since their migration from Russia to Canada at the end of 19th — beginning of 20th Century until nowadays. Their philosophy and way of life was based on the spirit of God in every person, and because of that beleif Doukhobors regard it as wrong to kill other human beings, even in war; hence springs the pacifism that is the most durable and widespread of Doukhobor attitudes.
With their coming to Canada in 1899, the Russian Doukhobors continued to live their phiposophy, with their concept of inner peace. Their communal pattern (stemming from the Russian mir system) was the way of universal brotherhood and love. They worked hard, adapted to the new situation of language, place and laws. They built 61 village communes, cultivated the soil and enriched the wider community with their pacifist way of life.
During the World War II many Doukhobors became to be conscientious objectors even after 1943, when the federal Government launched its compulsory military service programme. Alternative service camps were set up, but many Doukhobors were put into jails for refusing to go to the military. Many Doukhobors in different parys of Canada and the USA took an absolute stand against the institution of militarism and war.
During the Cold War period and beyond, Doukhobors continued a variety of peace-making and bridge-building activities and otherwise maintained a non-political friendship stance as citizen diplomats. In doing this, they increased their numbers by cooperating with others of kindred spirits such as the Mennonites and Quakers, but also with Molokans and members of various peace organizations. They organized peace marches and manifestations in 1964, 1965, 1983, 1984 etc. The year 1995 saw many successful Centennial events take place which brought together all Doukhobor factions from across Canada with participation by Russian and USA Doukhobors. In January 1996, the Canadian Museum of Civilization mounted a national Exhibition commemorating the 1895 Burning of Firearms event in Tsarist Russia and the migration of Doukhobors to Canada.
L. Klippenstein, USA. Conscientious objection in the Mennonite Communities of Tsarist Russia
Mennonites came to New Russia late in the 18th century under a colonization agreement which promised military service exemption to them as it did to other foreign colonists of the time. It became clear quite early though that actual war-time condtions would raise other
questions about the extent and meaning of war-time involvements of the Mennonites in their new homeland.
The Great Reforms of Alexander II could have meant the end of exemptions for Mennonites in Russia. They discovered though that negotiations were possible on this point although the initial modifications of the new military law proposed by the government did not meet the alternative service conditions set by the Mennonites themselves. The threat of massive Mennonite emigration persuaded the government to go beyond their first proposals. It agreed to set up forestry service camps providing non-combatant forms of work not under military jurisdiction. This arrangement did not change in essence until the Bolshevik Revolution ushered in a new order for the entire country.
Other forms of service, particularly hospital-related work, became a preferred type of alternative service for a large number of Mennonite men during the Russo-Japanese War and WWI. By then Mennonites had begun to experience severe financial pressures in the forestry camp program, while many men in the camps sensed a loss of meaning for the work they were doing there.
The Soviet takeover changed the situation from the very beginning. All aspects of an exemption program which, in fact, could continue for several decades, were taken over by the new regime. The discussion of those developments is however beyond the scope of this essay. Suffice it to say that all remnants of exemption privileges in the Soviet Union essentially disappeared with the promulgation of the Stalin Constitution of 1936, and then vanished altogether by the time that WWII broke out in 1941.
The provisions established for Mennonite military service exemptions from 1789 till 1941 demonstrated a somewhat unique case of state accomodation to minority concerns of conscience and religious freedom in tsarist Russia and the early decades of Soviet rule. One could imagine that such accomodation could happen again should it be called for by the citizens of Russia, or the areas of the "near abroad" which were in the Soviet Union before its demise.
D. Heinz, Austria. Seven-day Adventists and Noncombatancy in the Russian Empire
Adventist church-work in Russia began in 1884 as a revivalistic lay missionary movement among the German settlements in the Crimea, Volga region and the Caucasus. German colonists, mainly those with Mennonite, Lutheran or Baptist backgrounds, became acquainted with Adventism through books, tracts and magazines printed in the german language and sent to them by relatives and friends, who earlier had emigrated from Russia to North America. The early Russian Adventists came from the lower peasant and artisan classes. Toward the end of the 1890s and at the turn of the Century Adventists slowly gained a foothold in large cities such as Riga and St. Petersburgh.
Seventh-day Adventists in America first officially declared themselves noncombatants on August 2, 1864, after the Government had passed a draft law with special provisions for conscientious
objectors. The Adventist Church did not take the position of total conscientious objection against any form of military service as revealed in strict pacifism. The principle was to cooperate with the military authorities until commands conflict with one's own conscience and with the Law of God.
The Adventist opposition to take an active combatant role during time of war was in no European country greater than in Russia. According to Loebsack, the majority of the approximately 500 Russian Adventist draftees attempted — more or less successfully — to obtain positions in medical units or some other noncombatant branch of the army. In addition, he points out, that between 1914 and 1916 around 70 of these Adventist draftees opposed the bearing of arms and the performance of any form of military service. This indicates that 14% of the mainly noncombatant oriented Adventist draftees in Russia adopted a strict pacifist stand. We can further ascertain that from the 70 Adventist conscientious objectors 37 were sentenced to imprisonment or exile.
The question remains why Russian Adventists upheld the principle of noncombatancy so vigorously. Research has shown that the Adventist church in Russia obviously provided the highest number of conscientious objectors among European Adventism during that time. In addition to the fact that many early Adventists in Russia were of German origin, we must not disregard their former religious affiliations. Many of the early Russian Adventist converts came from Mennonite-Baptist circles where a strong anti-military attitude prevailed. This pacifist spirit somewhat present in Russian Adventism was not cultivated among Adventist members outside of Russia.
R. Ilukhina, D. Sdvizhkov, Russia. Russian Pacifism and Western Peace-making at Early XX Century (beginnings and activity of Russian Peace Societies)
Russian liberal pacifism as a part of Western peacemaking started its struggle for replacement of regime of war and violence by law and order in international relations at the beginning of XX Century. Organizing of pacifist movement was connected with growth of liberalism and democracy. Main Russian societies of peace were created in 1909 in Moscow and Peterburgh.
Their activity included propagation of general peace, working out concepts of international law, international arbitration and international security system. This activity lead to growth of many-sided connections and participation of Russian pacifists in European peace-making process. During military conflicts Russian pacifists tried to put their ideas into practice calling politicians and diplomats to arbitration and mediation, but they had no success. On the eve of World War I pacifists struggled against chauvinism and militarism but they still were a non-influential and alien movement in social life. The reasons were inrooted in non-adequacy of pacifism to Russian political culture, including lack of development of democratic institutions. The law on military service, militarism and prevailing of revolutionarist ideas reflected the fate of liberalism in general. But historical rile of Russian pacifism was determined not so much by specific influence as
by long-lasting humanistic ideals. Ideas of arbitration, disarmament, creation of international peace organizations were picked up by politicians and step by step became to be first elements and (to the end of XX Century) key tendencies of international life.
P. van den Dungen, Great Britain. I. Bliokh and Y. Novikov — Russian peacemakers at the turn of the Century
The author examines activity of two distinguished Russian peacemakers Ivan Bliokh (1836-1902) and Yakov Novikow (1849-1912). Their writings dealing with problems of war and peace were well known and respected in Western world. Their publications were printed in many languages and now the reprint of some of their scholarly works in the USA can be seen as confirmation of the high regard in which both characters continue to be held in the West. At the same time growing number of analytical and interpretative studies which focus on either or both of these peace thinkers and activists have appeared in the West. By contrast at home, in Russia, they are almost not remembered.
A successful entrepreneur in the construction and direction of railways and also a veritable captain of industry in Polish (Poland at that time was a part of Russia) economic life, I. Bliokh published his 6-volume book "The War of the Future in its Technical, Economic and Political Relations" in 1898. He predicted the brutal and global nature of a future war between the great powers, the nature of new weaponry (increase of fire-power, greater accuracy, larger range) and warned the rulers of Europe, that a great war between them would drag them and their societies into the abyss. The rest of his life he propagated his ideals widely, and his efforts exercised an important influence on international life, particularly on Tsar Nicolas II's call, in August 1898, for an international peace conference.
Y.Novikov started his own investigations of origins and evolution of warfare. They culminated in the publication in 1893 of a massive, two-volume work "Les Luttes entre Societes Humaines et Leurs Phases Successives". After that he published 16 more in French and in English as well as numerous articles in scholarly journals. He sought to demonstrate that, from an historical and evolutionary perspective, the nature of struggle did not remain constant, but evolved, with the growth of civilization, in the direction of less brutal and more complex forms. This opened up the possibility — indeed, necessity — of the abolition of one of the most violent and persistent manifestations of conflict: war. Influenced by social Darvinism, Novikov recognized the importance and inevitability of competition and struggle, but at the same time argued that "mutual aid", altruism, and selfless behaviour were also part of human behaviour, and that cooperation is possible. He thought that it was the task of an enlightened elite "to lead their nations away from atavistic militarist and chauvinist postures to a federation of European states".
In humanity's long and continuing struggle against war, the efforts of I. Bliokh and Y. Novikov will always rank among the most notable and noble ones.
O. Shalimov, Russia. Captured by the Fury of War (Antimilitary Protest by painter V. Vereshchagin)
Vassily Vereshchagin (1842-1904) was a vamous painter whose name was well known not only in Russia but in wide circles of liberal European intelligentsia. The main theme of his canvases was war, its sufferings and its consequences. These canvases became to be a significant fact in spiritual and intellectual life of Russia and Europe.
Vereshchagin himself took part in Russian-Turkish war of 1877-1878; he participated in military skirmishes, he risked to be shot and he killed himself. Dr. O. Shalimov gives analysis of Vereshchagin's journals, letters and articles and showes how his antimilitary concept developed. Step by step the painter realized that his purpose should be to express horrors of war, its brutality and antihuman essence. He beleived that his paintings should be true, realistic, accurate in details; in this case they would wake up peoples' moral feelings, stimulate adversion to war and educate more humanistic and conscientious spectator. He thought that art may play the role of the church in education of antimilitary society.
Differently from Leo Tolstoy Vereshchagin thought that it's necessary to propagate antimilitary ideas not among ordinary people but among persons in power, because peace and war depended on their policy. But "persons in power" like Tsar Alexander III or Prussian fieldmarshal Moltke were very much critical to paintings by Vereshchagin and didn't want them to be shown to wide circles of public.
Vereshchagin" was connected with some well known European pacifists like Bertha von Zuttner; he wrote for the peace magazine, she edited. His paintings made influence on many European and Russian peace activists. At the end of his life he wrote that he hated any war and hoped that humankind would come to peaceful way of solving international conflicts. The tendency was continued later by well known writers like A.Barbus, E.M.Remark and E. Hamingway.
V. M. Khaytsman, Russia. The Hague Peace Conference of 1899 and Ideas of Pacifism.
At the end of XIX and beginning of XX century ideas of international safety and disarmament became to be discussed widely among European statesmen and in the works of academic lawyers. L. Komarovsky, M. Engelhardt, F. Martens, economist S. Zhitkov and some others paid great attention to those problems in their works. V. Gessen and I. Blyokh became to be worldly known propagandists of pacifism and disarmament. Their activity was strengthened by creation of peace societies, however not numerous.
Problems of disarmament were discussed also at interparliamentary conferences which passed some international agreements, for example Geneve Convention of 1864 which contributed to the creation of Red Cross. A Declaration forbidding using explosive and incendiary bullets passed in St. Peterburgh in 1868 also contributed in limitation of militarism. Russian Government became to be an initiator of Brussels
Conference of 1874 which was devoted to codification of laws and customs of ground war.
In August 1898 Russian Government proposed to have an International Peace Conference. There was a bitter diplomatic struggle around this invitation, and at last the Hague Conference of Peace was called on 18 May 1899. 109 representatives of 26 states took part in this Conference. The Conference rejected proposition to limit ground and fleet armament and military budgets. After some discussions it approved only three declarations about limitation of ground armaments.
The Convention on laws and customs of ground war passed by the Conference was wery significant. Until now many states adhere to main points of this Convention.
After passing some remarks, corrections and reservations the Conference passed the project of Convention on peaceful decision of international collisions which was proposed by Russian Government. It was a complex of international arbitration, which provided for creation of Constant Court of International Arbitration.
The Hague Conference of 1899 was as a whole a kind of palliative which was able to suspend for a while international military competition.
Antimilitary Appeal by Tolstoyans (Publication by R. M. Ilukhina, Russia)
This Appeal was written by Sergey Popov in October 1914. The author beleived that the time came to remind people the Divine Law of non-violence and the way out of the evil which overcame people. All people of the world, he wrote, were children of the same God and all are brothers and sisters; so they shouldn't kill each other. True enemies are within you — those are sins, temptations and superstitions.
The Appeal was signed by Tolstoyans Vassily Bespalov and Leo Pulner and edited by V.V.Chertkov (the son of Leo Tolstoy's secretary). After that 19 copies of it were put on walls in Town Tula. Local authorities found out the the pacifists and imprisoned them. The Moscow Military Court condemned 28 Tolstoyans to hard labour.
Tatiana Pavlova, Russia. "General Peace-Maker": War, Violence and Revolution in Life and Works by M. Voloshin.
The chapter by Tatiana Pavlova deals with one of the mostly famous and original authors of so called "Silver Age" of Russian Culture (the first quarter of XXth century) Maximilian Voloshin (1877-1932). He was a painter, a poet, an art critic, an original and deep thinker. And he was a remarkable peace-maker for all his life.
There are three parts in the chapter. I. Years of Pilgrimage. Even in his childhood Voloshin was so peaceful that other children couldn't challenge him to hostility or fighting. Being adult he developed his philosophy of peace which had its source in his feeling of the wholeness of the world and unity of all creature including human beings. He studied art, poetry, philosophy, religion, magic, occultism. Being a witness of the first Russian Revolution (1905-1907) he was
horrified by its brutality and predicted, with Dostoyevsky, future tragedy of Russian Revolution. In 1913 he blamed Ilya Repin for brutality of his art, feeling that naturalistically painted blood on his picture "Ivan the Terrible killing his son Ivan" was a kind of violence against all the people who looked at this picture.
In section II. The War — Voloshin's anti-military position is shown. From the very beginning of World War II he wrote in his articles that the war was a crime against humanity, and that he feeled that it was necessary not to defend one of the parts, but to overcome the war itself. He expressed his deep sorrow about the war's victims and protested against the conscription. When called to war himself he became to be a conscientious objector. "I refuse to be a soldier,- he wrote to the Minister of Defence,- as a europeen, as an artist, as a poet... I cannot take part in fratricidal and intestine war, whatever reasons of it could be... For me taking part in this war would be a crime". Second time he rejected to be a soldier in the Read Army when Bolsheviks offered it to him. He realized antihuman and brutal character of modern wars in which peaceful inhabitants suffer most of all and also realized true reasons of wars — economical greed of industrial culture. In many of his articles and poems he wrote about immoral ideology of war.
The third section — Revolution and Civil War — shows the attitude of Voloshin to those tragic events. For him like for Dostoyevsky the Revolution in Russia was a result of devils' activity — devils who seized human minds. During the Civil War which was extremely brutal in the Crimea where Voloshin lived, he felt that he shouldn't support one of the sides — neither Reds nor Whites. He wrote: "When brothers are killing each other it is necessary to be with their Mother (Russia), not with one of them, and pray for them all". He didn't beleive in Marxist theory of class struggle: marxism he called "kakangelium" (bad news). He saw a mystical meaning in the Civil War and beleived that peoples of Russia could come to a new harmony and play a very important role in reconciliation of Eastern and Western worlds. Practically he used to hide and save in his house anybody who needed his help, no matter who they were.
The whole life of Voloshin was an example and a testimony of vitality of peace ideal and peace doctrine in Russian history and Russian culture.
W. Sawatsky, USA. Pacifist Protestants in Soviet Russia between the wars
This chapter gives an intellectual and theological historical sketch of protestantism in Russia since the middle of the of 19th Century. There were Lutherans, Reformed, Anabaptist Mennonites, Methodists and Baptists living within the Russian Empire together with native Molokany and Dukhobory, and especially Evangelical Christian Baptists, the most significant Slavic Protestant indigenous movement sprang up in 1860s when peasants began reading the Bible in the new modern Russian translation. At the beginning of 20th Century Pentecostalism appeared and its later variant called the Charismatic movement.
Because most Protestant groups stressed a recovery of the primacy of Holy Scripture as authority, many also at some point in their Biblical study recovered the pacifism of Jesus and of early Christianity. The pacifist strain remained very near the surface, as long as the commitment to the authority of Scripture remained strong.
Professor Sawatsky also demonstrates conflicting interpretations and memory distortions of the pacifist history of Russian Protestants. It serves a recovery of information for the evangelicals themselves, not merely informing a larger readership who may not know the varieties of the long pacifist tradition in Russia from Boris and Gleb to the twentieth century.
The Author gives a survey of history of Protestant pacifists in Russia between the wars, in particular history of Mennonites, Evangelical Christians and Baptists; he also demonstrates the tragic story of conscientious objection in Russia since 1918 until early 30s, when there were still over 1000 conscientious objectors for religious reasons in forced alternative service. A Decree of 7 December 1931 ordered such CO's to serve for three years in labour camps and receiving only 20% of normal pay.
After eight years of increasingly tough measures against pacifists, they were still a problem. However conscientious objection to military service never became a mass movement during the early decades of Soviet power, compared to the massive refusals to serve reported since 1990. Soviet authorities considered pacifists a dangerous fifth column, but the danger was more theoretical than real. It was when Soviet power was still at its shakiest, that the provisions for exemption by reason of religious conviction were most easily granted.
The Soviet esort to violence as the only way to hasten society towards full communism prevented giving space to the many sectarian groups who embodied a high moral work ethic and a commitment to a love ethic. When some of these sectarian groups were able to resume their religious activity after 1944, they had learned the lesson that subordination to Soviet power was the only issue that mattered. The involvement of Soviet evangelical Protestants in the Peace Fund, in foreign travel and speechmaking on behalf of the Soviet Union's definition of peace, was intended to be the public service for permitting resumption of religious practice. Yet this service depended on such Soviet religious voices having orgaining credibility with partners abroad and with their own supporters. Instead, the major achievement till the early 1980s was widespread distrust of their leaders in Moscow because of their peace activity, and distrust by partners abroad. Thus for evangelical Protestants in the post-Soviet period, it will be critical to recover the lost history, to sort out the true from the falsifications.
D. McFadden, USA. From Quaker service to Quaker presence: Quakers in Soviet Russia, 1917-1927
The main theme of this chapter is relief work of British and American Quakers in the Volga region during the great famine of 1921-1923, as well as medical and agricultural relief work during the restoration period in 1920s. The author examines also activity of a
Moscow Quaker Center which facilitated discussions and contacts between Quakers and Russian Tolstoyans.
The author mentions that the World War I accelerated Quaker relief efforts all over Europe. In Russia the Society of Friends was involved in famine relief and hospital construction in the Volga region, Vladivostok, Moscow, Petrograd, and in the Baltic region. The center of Quaker relief work in Russia became to be Buzuluk, Samara region on the Volga. At the time of Civil War and afterwards British and American Quakers operated more than one thousand separate feeding stations throughout the Volga region, and also ran tuberculosis sanitariums, agricultural schools, educational and construction programs, children's homes and nurses' training centers.
The author examines also the negotiation process between Quakers and Bolshevik authorities. As a result Quaker service received authorization to distribute relief supplies from the American Red Cross, the American Relief Administration, and the British Save the Children Fund and had some other agreements. One of the mostly significant actions was successful provision of up to 1000 horses from Siberia and Turkestan to be lent "free of cost" to the peasants. This action was an example of cooperation between foreign Quakers and Russian Tolstoyans (Ilya Tolstoy, a grandson of Leo Tolstoy, took part in this action.
In the post-famine climate the negotiations between Quakers and Soviet officials were concentrated on two major areas: the reconstruction of the rural economy and the provision of adequate rural medical services and training. Successive agreements negotiated in 1923, 1924, 1925 and 1926. However from 1924 until 1927, despite the generally cooperative spirit prevailing between Quaker International Service and the Soviet government, Quaker projects gradually declined, largely due to the inability of the American Friends Service Committee and British Friends to raise sufficient funds to keep them going. Moscow Quaker Center staffed by British Quaker Dorice White, would survive until 1931 providing a presence and a space for international visitors, Tolstoyans, and all interested Russians to gather, drink tea, and talk.
E. Goetel, Russia. United Council of Religious Communities and Groups as one of Manifestations of Russian Religious Pacifism
It is a paradox that just after revolutionary violence of 1917 and horrors of Civil War Russian religious pacifism became to flourish for a short period. The reason was instability of Soviet power as well as definitely anti-Bolshevik position of Russian Orthodox Church. New authorities saw in sectaries of various denominations who were persecuted during Tsarist regime their allies in the struggle against Church Orthodoxy. Sectaries from their side welcomed religious freedom declared by the Soviewt Government. Among those sectaries there were also Tolstoyans, the mainstream of Russian pacifist movement.
Using archive materials, manuscripts and early documents of Soviet authorities E.Goetel examines history of pacifist activity of the United Council of Religious Cmmunities and Groups (UCRAG). There were two periods of attitude of Soviet regime to religious antimilitarists:
relative tolerance (1917 — middle of 20s) and persecution (middle of 20s — end of 30s). UCRCAG was organized by Tolstoyans and some other sects in 1918 and developed its activity at the first period. The purpose of it was defined as defend of religious freedom and right not to go to the military service on religious reason. Representatives of many denominations and religious groups were included to UCRCAG chosen by their local organizations. There were Mennonites, Baptists, Evangelical Christians, 7-Day Adventists, Tolstoyans, later — Molokans, and some others.
Participation in creating the decree on freedom from military service for conscientious objectors was the main activity of UCRCAG. The decree passed on January 4, 1919. UCRCAG was appointed to make expertize in cases of conscientious objection. Since than UCRCAG started it human right activity. They sent representatives all over Russia to collect information about conscientious objectors to send this information to UCRCAG and to be experts on court procedures. Sometimes they succeeded to prevent shootings up or to abolish illegal orders of local authorities.
In december 1920 another decree passed by Soviet of People Commissars which limited UCRCAG's commissions. Conscientious objectors were persecuted more and more until at the end of 1923 it was dismissed. However the movement of Russian sectarian pacifism existed until the end of 30s propagating ideas of non-violence.
Ales' Adamovich, Belorus. Pacifism of "Shestidesyatniki"
Democratic intelligencia — Russian public figures, writers, painters, philosophers and social thinkers who were very active politically and socially during first Russian "thaw" at the end of 1950s — beginning 1960s were called "Shestidesyatniki" (which means "men of the sixties"). Ales' Adamovich, a well known Belorussian writer, who died from heart attack in 1995, was one of them. He contributed a his chapter specially for this book.
"Shestidesyatniki", he wrote were struggling against totalitarianism since the World War II. Almost all of them were participants of the war and since then they hated war and violence. "Perestroyka" and the downfall of communist Utopia was partly the result of their activity.
Literature by writers-"shestidesyatniki" (like V. Bykov, G. Baklanov, K. Vorobyov, B. Okudzhava and others) was not pacifist in strict sence of the word but in its spirit, in its pathos it was deeply antimilitary. Memoirs, letters, interviews supplemented this antimilitary theme.
Other group of Soviet intelligencia were nuclear physicists like academicians Kapitsa, Landau and Sakharov who became to be active anti-militarists and anti-totalitarianists. They contrasted to official "peace movement" their antimilitary and antitotalitarian protest. They were convinced that if Soviet totalitarianism survives, the third World War would be inevitable. It was because of their influence that president Gorbachov started "Perestroyka" in 1985. It was because of their influence that the coup of 1991 didn't succeed They succeeded to avoid violence on barricades of 1991 and probably their main service was that the totalitarianism in Russia was ruined without a nuclear war.
T. Telyukova, Russia. "Trust" group in Moscow.
Independent peace movement arose in the USSR in 1982. A manifestation of it was "Trust" group in Moscow and other cities. There are almost no documents reached Western countries and published about the movement in the provinces, that's why the author deals with Moscow group. It was created June 4th 1982 by 11 persons, among them academics, engineers, doctors and teachers. They declared their purpose as building trust between East and West. It existed until 1989.
The beginning of 1980s was characterized by worsening of. international relations after invasion of Soviet military forces to Afganistan in 1979. Within the Soviet Union where Y.Andropov came to power in 1982, the political persecution of dissidents became to be more cruel. 200 people were arrested in 1981 for expression of views different from official ones. In their first appeals and declarations the group declared that mutual trust between East and West was the only mean to avoid nuclear war and mutual obliteration. They called to reduction of armaments and to complete elimination of nuclear armament reserve. In 1983 they called USA and USSR governments to stop all the tests of nuclear armaments.
However "Trust" group didn't critisize official Soviet program of disarmament and international peace and stated that they are ready to collaborate with any Soviet peace organizations. Their main activity was directed to organizing contacts between citizens of different countries, exchange trips by schoolchildren, students, academics, Soviet-American TV debates, joint experiments in space studies and aid to countries of the third world. They called to organization of peace marches and exchange by tourist groups.
From the very beginning KGB prevented the group's activity and persecuted its participants. They were arrested many times, called to KGB officials, some were imprisoned to psychiatrical hospitals.
Since President Gorbachev came to power the situattion changed. Step by step the group obtained more and more freedom in its activity. In 1991 the number of members kept in prison was already only 30. The "Trust" group became to be more active; the magazine "День за днем" ("Day after Day") appeared, new Declaration was confirmed. The main purpose of the members of the group was now struggle for democracy and human rights in Russia, defence of conscientious objectors against persecution, work with prisoners. After 1989 the "Trust" group became to be just a part of mainstream of democratic movement in Russia.
R. Ilukhina and T.Pavlova, Russia. Totalitarianism and Free Thinking: the Role of Independent Peace and Pacifist ideas in the USSR in the Ending of the "Cold War"
Clandestine peace making in the post war period did not simply put forward the idea of "cold war" resistance, but worked to wreck the system of political violence because this system was closely allied with
militarism and with the threat to the whole world. "Cold war" resistance had its beginning in Stalin prisons and concentration camps. A scholar and philosopher D.Andreev in his book "Roza mira" ("Rose of peaceful world") called to put an end to wars and absolute tyranny and to establish a "World Federation of States" (2). Probably D.Andreev was not alone in his opposition to the regime of violence and "cold war", but their names are not known.
Meanwhile the 50s witnessed the establishment of the authorized Soviet Peace Committee. Dividing all the people into "ours" and "aliens" it fuelled, in practice, the "cold war" and inspired the ideological confrontation. The principle "We all are for peace" served for a very long period as a coyer for its members — devote communists and KGB officers — to disguise the militarisation of the society, arms race, adventurous Soviet foreign policy, and human rights violations as well as reprisals against pacifists.
It took years of sufferings and searches before an alternative antimilitary movement could come in the open. This development has passed three stages: 1. Individual protests against the "cold war" and conceptual strategy development of the 60s and 70s; 2. Clandestine antimilitary groups and collective resistance to state violence in the first half of the 80s; 3. The voluntary peace movement against the totalitarian regime and "cold war" in Gorbachev's time of; "perestroyka" and the second half of the 80s. Academician Sakharov was the first to highlight the correlations between nuclear war prevention, socio-economic reforms, restoration of human rights and, on this base, drawing together the socialist and capitalist systems. Another important landmark in the "cold war" resistance was the year of 1968 when some intelligentsia groups launched protests against Soviet military intervention to Czechoslovakia. There existed also a phenomenon of so called "inner emigration", which at those time was a passive, but a real movement. Several components were mixed in this protest: denial of the totalitarian regime, realizing that human rights are of indisputable moral value, and antimilitarism. In 1979 Afgan war gave a strong impulse to antimilitarism. Peace advocates came to understand that only the fall of the communist regime could put an end to the "cold war". A.Sakharov was the main speaker against the Afgan war. The "Trust" group started its own antimilitary and human rights movement. The movement of young "hippies" made their contribution to antimilitary movement, refusing to go to the military service.
These movements gave way to the third stage of peace movement in Russia. It was the period of the middle 80s when M. Gorbachev, the future USSR President, called for a world free of violence and nuclear weapons based on the priority of human values over class interests. Many grass-roots antimilitary groups and movements appeared at that period. The mostly strong and successive was "Soldiers' Mothers'" movement against violence and anauthorized relations in the military. Early 90s witnessed the creation of Tolstoyan groups and pacifist unions such as Russian Peace Society, Violence free World, Ethics of non-violence, Omega, Campaign against violence and others. These groups conditioned the end of the "cold war" on the new non-violent human mentality, "moral disarmament", peace education.
СПИСОК АВТОРОВ — LIST OF AUTHORS
[Адамович Алесь] — известный белорусский писатель и публицист
Гетель Елена Ивановна — историк, автор трудов по антимилитаристским движениям
Илюхина Рузанна Михайловна — доктор исторических наук, до 1997 г. ведущий научный сотрудник Института Всеобщей истории Российской Академии Наук
Иникова Светлана Александровна — кандидат исторических наук, старший научный сотрудник Института Этнологии и Антропологии Российской Академии Наук
Ломунов Константин Николаевич — заслуженный деятель науки РФ, доктор филологических наук, профессор, главный научный сотрудник Института Мировой литературы им. A. M. Горького Российской Академии Наук
Малахова Нина Павловна — историк, автор статей, исследователь истории русского православия
Павлова Татьяна Александровна — доктор исторических наук, ведущий научный сотрудник Института Всеобщей истории Российской Академии Наук, член Союза писателей Москвы
Пушкарев Лев Никитович — доктор исторических наук, ведущий научный сотрудник-консультант Института Российской истории Российской Академии Наук
Рудницкая Евгения Львовна — доктор исторических наук, ведущий научный сотрудник Института Российской истории Российской Академии Наук
Сдвижков Денис Анатольевич — кандидат исторических наук, научный сотрудник Института Всеобщей истории Российской Академии Наук
Телюкова Татьяна Ивановна — кандидат исторических наук, научный сотрудник Института Всеобщей истории Российской Академии Наук
Хайцман Виктор Моисеевич — доктор исторических наук
Шалимов Олег Александрович — кандидат исторических наук, научный сотрудник Института Всеобщей истории Российской Академии Наук
Щапов Ярослав Николаевич — член-корреспондент Российской Академии Наук, доктор исторических наук, профессор, главный научный сотрудник, руководитель Центра истории религии и церкви Института Российской истории Российской Академии Наук
Ягодовский Александр Платонович — автор статей по истории русского православия; переводчик
Bori Pier Cesare — Professore, Universita di Bologna, Facolta di scienze politiche (Italia)
Brock Peter — Professor Emiretus of History, University of Toronto (Canada)
Dungen Peter van den — Professor, Department of Peace Studies, University of Bradford (Great Britain)
Heinz Daniel — Dr., Lecturer in Church History Seminar Bogenhofen (Austria), Theol. Hochschule Friedensau (Germany)
Klippenstein Lawrence — Dr., Archivist of Mennonite Heritage Centre (Canada, Winnipeg)
McFadden David W. — Associate Professor of History, Fairfield University (USA)
Sawatsky Walter — Associate Professor, Mennonite Biblical Seminary (USA)
Tarasoff J. Koozma — journalist, writer, historian of Doukhobor movement (Canada)
Введение (П. Брок, Канада)........................................................... 7
Глава I. Истоки................................................................................ 9
— Идеи мира в русском летописании XI-XIII веков (Я. Н. Щапов, Россия)........................................................................................... 11
— Идеи мира в русской агиографической литературе (Н. П. Малахова, Россия)....................................................................... 23
— Идеал мира в литургической практике Русской Православной церкви (А. П. Ягодовский, Россия)............................................ 42
Глава II. Эволюция идей мира в XVII-XIX вв.......................... 55
— Думы о мире в русском фольклоре и в общественной мысли XVII-XVIII вв. (Л. Н. Пушкарев, Россия)................................... 57
— Идея мира в русской общественной мысли XIX века (Е. Л. Рудницкая, Россия)...................................................................... 72
— Развитие идеи ненасилия: "непротивление" у Льва Толстого (П. Ч. Бори, Италия)............................................................................ 88
— Апостол ненасилия (К. Н. Ломунов, Россия)........................... 97
Глава III. Противники войны по мотивам совести в Российской Империи................................................................ 113
— Русские сектанты-пацифисты и военная служба 1874-1914 гг. (П. Брок, Канада)................................................................................. 115
— История пацифистского движения в секте духоборцев (XVIII-XX вв.) (С. А. Иникова, Россия)........................................................ 122
— Канадские духоборы как миротворцы (К. Тарасов, Канада). 137
Отказ от военной службы по мотивам совести в меннонитских общинах царской России (Л. Клиппенштейн, Канада)........... 150
— Адвентисты Седьмого Дня и отказ от участия в военных действиях в Российской Империи (Д. Хайнц, Австрия).......... 172
Глава IV. Международные аспекты российского миротворчества на рубеже XIX и XX веков....................... 177
— Российский пацифизм и западное миротворчество в начале XX в. (становление и деятельность российских обществ мира) (Р. М. Илюхина, Д. А.Сдвижков, Россия)............................................. 179
— И. Блох и Я. Новиков — российские миротворцы на рубеже столетий (П. ван ден Данген, Великобритания)....................... 202
— В плену у фурии войны (Антимилитаристский протест художника В. В. Верещагина) (О. А. Шалимов, Россия)............................ 215
— Гаагская конференция мира 1899 г. и идеи пацифизма (В. М. Хайцман, Россия)......................................................................... 225
Глава V. Противники войны по мотивам совести в Первую мировую войну и в первые годы Советской власти...... 241
— Антивоенное воззвание толстовцев (публикация Р. М. Илюхиной, Россия)...................................................................... 243
— "Всеобщий примиритель" (тема войны, насилия и революции в жизни и творчестве М. Волошина) (Т. А. Павлова, Россия).. 245
— Пацифисты-протестанты в Советской России между двумя мировыми войнами (У. Саватски, США)................................. 262
— От квакерского служения к квакерскому присутствию: квакеры в Советской России, 1917-1927 (Д. МакФадден, США)............ 285
— Объединенный Совет религиозных общин и групп как одно из проявлений русского религиозного пацифизма (Е. И. Гетель, Россия)........................................................................................... 301
Глава VI. Независимые миротворческие идеи и группы в период "холодной войны"
— Пацифизм "шестидесятников"................................................... 319
([Алесь Адамович], Белоруссия)................................................... 321
— Московская группа "Доверие" (Т. И. Телюкова, Россия)....... 326
— Независимые миротворческие движения в период тоталитаризма и их роль в окончании "холодной войны" (Р. М. Илюхина, Т. А. Павлова, Россия).............................................. 336
Заключение. Ненасильственная альтернатива в России и пацифизм..................................................................................... 347
Introduction (Peter Brock, Canada)............................................... 7
Chapter 1. Sources.
— Peace ideas in Russian Chronicles of XI-XIII centuries (Y. Shchapov, Russia)........................................................................ 11
— Peace ideas in Russian hagiography (N. Malakhova, Russia).. 23
— Peace ideas in Russian Orthodox Liturgical practice (A. Yagodovsky, Russia).................................................................... 42
Chapter 2. Evolution of peace ideas in XVII-XIX centuries
— Meditations on peace in Russian folklore and in social thought of XVII-XVIII centuries (L. Pushkaryov, Russia)............................. 57
— Peace ideas in Russian social thought of XIX century (E. Rudnitskaya, Russia).................................................................... 72
— Idea of non-violence in progress: "non-resistance" of Leo Tolstoy (P. C. Bori, Italy)............................................................................. 88
— The Apostle of non-violence (K. Lomunov, Russia).................. 97
Chapter 3. Conscientious objection in the Russian Empire
— Some Russian pacifist sectarians and military service, 1874-1914 (P. Brock, Canada)......................................................................... 115
— History of pacifist movement in Doukhobor sect, XVIII-XX с. (S. Inikova, Russia)............................................................................. 122
— Canadian Doukhobors as peacemakers (K. Tarasoff, Canada) 137
— Conscientious objection in the Mennonite Communities of Tsarist Russia (L. Klippenstein)................................................................ 150
— Seventh-day Adventists and Noncombatancy in the Russian Empire (D.Heinz, Austria)........................................................................... 172
Chapter 4. International aspects of Russian peacemaking at the turn of the Century
— Russian pacifism and Western peace-making at early XX century (beginnings and activity of Russian peace societies) (R. Ilukhina, D. Sdvizhkov, Russia)........................................................................ 179
— I. Bliokh and Y. Novikov — Russian peacemakers at the turn of the Century (P. van den Dungen, Great Britain)................................ 202
— Captured by the Fury of War (Antimilitary protest by the painter V. Vereshchagin (O. Shalimov, Russia)........................................... 215
— The Hague Peace conference of 1899 and ideas of pacifism (V. Khaytsman, Russia)...................................................................... 225
Chapter 5. Conscientious objectors during wartime and in the first years of the Soviet state
— Antimilitary appeal by Tolstoyans (publication by R. Ilukhina, Russia)......................................................................................................... 243
— "General peace-maker" (war, violence and revolution in the life and works of M. Voloshin) (T. Pavlova, Russia)................................. 245
— Pacifist protestants in Soviet Russia between the wars (W. Sawatsky, USA)............................................................................. 262
— From Quaker Service to Quaker presence: Quakers in Soviet Russia, 1917-1927 (D. McFadden, USA).................................... 285
— United Council of Religious Communities and Groups as one of manifestations of Russian religious pacifism (E. Goetel, Russia) 301
Chapter 6. Independent peace ideas and groups during the "cold war"
— Pacifism of "shestidesyatniki" ([A.Adamovich], Belorussia)...... 321
— "Trust" group in Moscow (T. Telukova, Russia)......................... 326
— Totalitarianism and free thinking: the role of independent peace and pacifist ideas in the USSR in the ending of the "cold war" (R. Ilukhina and T. Pavlova, Russia)................................................................ 336
Conclusion. Nonviolent alternative in Russia and pacifism... 347
Утверждено к печати
Институтом всеобщей истории РАН
Оригинал-макет: Е. С. Токарева
Л. Р. № 020915 от 23 сентября 1994 г.
Подписано к печати 31.03.1997
формат 60x90 1/16
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Изд: «Долгий путь российского пацифизма», М., ИВИ РАН, 1997.